As an unambiguous expression of both Canadian national identity and a unified military, the Canadian Armed Forces Ensign symbolises the victory of the Pearson government in two of its most contentious initiatives. The antecedents and development of the Ensign, however, have not previously been studied. Examined here will be the need for a service ensign after the introduction of the National Flag of Canada in 1965, lukewarm support for an ensign in the upper echelons of the military, hostility in the Cabinet and dogged determination on the part of the Minister of National Defence, Paul Hellyer, to have a design approved.
Bertosa, Brian "Hellyer’s Flag: The Origins of the Canadian Armed Forces Ensign in Documents, 1964-68." Canadian Military History 32, 2 (2023)