During the mid–19th century, the role of the military in New Brunswick began to change. Although its primary function remained defence against invasion, the civil power called on it with increasing frequency; first the British regulars and later the militia assisted in capacities ranging from fighting fires to policing. Nevertheless, as New Brunswick changed from colony to province, the militia did not automatically replace the imperial garrison. Civil authorities were reluctant to call on it, and volunteers assumed this role only after the regulars departed in 1869. This article first examines the types of disorder that occurred between the 1830s and the 1870s. It next considers the 18 known instances during this period when the civil authorities called out British regulars and provincial (ie., county–based) militias to aid them. It finaly looks at factors that discouraged such use of the militia.