At the beginning of the 1960s Canada embarked on an increasingly interventionist policy in Southern Africa that included a significant number of peacekeeping, military, and technical assistance programmes1. In addition to peacekeeping efforts in the Congo (1960–64), Canada provided military assistance to Ghana (1961–68), Zambia (1965), Tanzania (1965–70) and Nigeria (1963/1968–70). While the Zambia and Nigeria missions were essentially responses to emergencies, the Ghana and Tanzania missions were more calculated affairs. To help foster democratic governments Canada agreed to assist in the establishment and training of professional armies and air forces which, when combined with governmental assistance and other infrastructure building, would firmly support a pro–Western rather than communist regime in the two countries. While the mission for Ghana began in 1961, the Canadian Armed Forces Advisory and Training Team Tanzania (CAFATTT) was officially authorized on December 8th, 1964, after Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson made the announcement in the House of Commons. Over the next five years the Canadian contingent built the Tanzanian People’s Defence Force (TPDF) from the ground up, creating everything from Tanzania’s National Defence Act to the instructional pamphlets used for teaching weapons classes. Throughout the CAFATTT mission both Russian and Chinese advisory teams who were also competing for Tanzania continuously challenged the Canadians, initiating a game of Cold War chess with all of Southern Africa as the prize. In the end, the Canadians were unable to sway Tanzania towards the west and were forced to leave only five years after they had first arrived.