International Migration Research Centre

Document Type

Research Publications

Publication Date



Balsillie School of International Affairs


  • Social connectedness to social support systems and communities highly affect the transitioning success of Philippine Internationally Educated Nurses (IENs). These networks are especially critical during the first year upon arrival.
  • The fragmented, indirect pathways to professional practice, (including barriers to foreign credential recognition, lengthy and costly examination, licensing and retraining result in direct devaluation of IENs and the possibility of permanent (de)skilling.
  • Female IENs endured more financial and emotional hardship, compared to their male counterparts, with regard to family obligations and deeper financial burden. While many of the male IENs experienced the same challenges as women, the latter experienced longer unemployment as they stayed home to take care of children, while their husbands found work first. More research on gendered discrepancies among IENs is recommended.