Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)




Faculty of Science

First Advisor

Mark Pancer

Advisor Role

Thesis Supervisor


Individuals are thought to differ in the extent to which their day-to-day thoughts, feelings, and fantasies focus on the past or future (i.e., temporal orientation). This thesis describes the continued development of a multidimensional measure of temporal orientation that includes the following four subscales: (1) negative future orientation, (2) positive future orientation, (3) negative past orientation, and (4) positive past orientation. Two studies were conducted. In study one, 921 introductory psychology students completed the thirty-item Temporal Orientation Scale (TOS). Based on analyses of the 30-item initial version of the scale, a refined 21-item version of the TOS was developed. In study two, the reliability and validity of the 21-item version of the TOS were assessed. Two hundred and forty-six introductory psychology students participated in study two. While results for the total scale indicated low levels of internal consistency, analysis of the individual subscales demonstrated adequate internal consistency and test-retest reliability over a five to seven week period. Convergent validation was obtained for the positive future orientation and negative past orientation subscales and discriminant validity evidence was obtained for the positive future and positive past orientation subscales. The results are discussed in terms of suggestions for continued scale development and validation.

Convocation Year


Convocation Season