Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Social Work (MSW)


Social Work

Program Name/Specialization

Studies in Social Work Practice


Lyle S. Hallman Faculty of Social Work

First Advisor

Dr. Michael Woodford

Advisor Role


Second Advisor

Dr. Jenn Root

Advisor Role

Committee Member

Third Advisor

Dr. Shanna K. Kattari

Advisor Role

External Examiner


Community studies documenting gender-based violence (GBV) experienced by trans and non-binary (TNB) people often find differences in prevalence across TNB subgroups. Studies of TNB university students tend to treat them as a homogenous group, thus gender differences in terms of subgroups are unknown. Using data collected from TNB Ontario university students, I examined the prevalence and impacts of GBV across three TNB subgroups (trans man spectrum, trans women spectrum, and gender queer/non-binary). Specifically, reflecting subtle and overt forms of GBV, among each subgroup I explored the frequency of trans environmental microaggressions, trans interpersonal microaggressions, and victimization, and their relationship with positive mental health, psychological distress, perceived stress, and campus belonging. Trans man spectrum students reported experiencing both microaggression types significantly more frequently than the trans woman spectrum. No other differences in prevalence were found. Consistent with minority stress theory, at all levels of analysis statistically significant relationships between GBV forms and wellbeing outcomes, with one exception, were in expected direction, suggesting that experiences of GBV are associated with poorer wellbeing outcomes. Exploratory and explanatory analyses suggest that GBV can negatively impact students’ wellbeing, but these impacts are not identical across TNB subgroups. This study highlights the importance of considering TNB students as a heterogeneous group when examining GBV and its consequences. Implications for policy, practice, and the training of social work students are offered.

Convocation Year


Convocation Season