Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Kinesiology (MKin)


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Faculty of Science

First Advisor

Tom Hazell

Advisor Role

Associate Professor


INTRODUCTION: Appetite fluctuates across the menstrual cycle, suggesting ovarian hormones are involved in the regulation of appetite hormones and energy intake. Exercise is another regulator of appetite with higher intensity exercise generating a greater and more consistent suppression. Considering there is limited evidence investigating the role of ovarian hormones in appetite regulation, menopause represents a stage of life where ovarian function declines, thus providing an opportunity to further explore the role of ovarian hormones in the appetite-regulatory response to exercise. PURPOSE: To examine the role of ovarian hormones on appetite-regulating hormones in pre- and post-menopausal females following a high-intensity interval training session (10 x 1 min intervals at 90% HRmax interspersed with 1 min recovery). METHODS: Sixteen 40-60 y healthy females (8 pre- and 8 post-menopausal) participated in a between-subjects experimental design. All females completed one HIIT session with pre-menopausal females completing the session in the LP. Acylated ghrelin, active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY3-36), and subjective appetite perceptions were measured fasted, pre-exercise as well as 0, 30, and 90 min post-exercise. Ad-libitum energy intake was assessed for a 3-day period (day before, day of, day after). Two-way mixed ANOVAs (group x time) were used to compare differences in hormones, subjective perceptions of appetite, and energy intake between groups with Bonferroni post-hoc analysis applied where necessary. RESULTS: No group differences were found in acylated ghrelin (P=0.174, np2=0.148) or GLP-1 (P=0.336, np2=0.089), however there was a trending main effect for PYY3-36 (P=0.077, np2=0.432). There were no group differences in subjective appetite (P=0.331, np2=0.073), and feeding, as indicated by the main effect of time, altered acylated ghrelin, GLP-1, and subjective appetite in both groups (pp2>0.625). CONCLUSION: As the first study to investigate appetite-regulating hormones following an acute bout of treadmill HIIT in pre- and post-menopausal females of this age group, there is no effect of ovarian hormones on appetite.

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Available for download on Saturday, August 30, 2025