Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)




Faculty of Human and Social Sciences

First Advisor

Judy Eaton

Advisor Role


Second Advisor

Tony Christensen

Advisor Role

Second Reader


There has been a 42% increase in gun violence in Canada since 2013, largely due to increases in Toronto (Statistics Canada, 2022a). To gain a better understanding of this phenomenon, this study evaluated collective efficacy as a predictor of gun violence. Seven correlates of collective efficacy were identified including, low economic status, ethnic diversity, mobility, family disruption, employment rate, low educational attainment, and youth percentage in a population. This study included data from the City of Toronto’s Open Data Portal and the 2016 Canadian Census. The data were pulled from various datasets and then were reorganized into one file, which was then used to run a multiple regression analysis. This allowed for the assessment of the relationship between the multiple correlates of collective efficacy and gun violence. Ultimately, this research was able to provide evidence that collective efficacy is an accurate predictor of gun violence in Toronto’s neighbourhoods. Low economic status, ethnic diversity, employment rate, and youth percentage in a population were significant predictors of gun violence, and family disruption was a marginally significant predictor of gun violence. The results of this study are important as they directly advance knowledge regarding predicting gun violence using collective efficacy, and do so in a solely Canadian context. The results of this research can assist policy makers and community outreach programs to better identify and inform their gun violence reduction strategies across Toronto.

Convocation Year


Convocation Season


Included in

Criminology Commons