Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)



Program Name/Specialization

Developmental Psychology


Faculty of Science

First Advisor

Dr. Eileen Wood

Advisor Role



Documented gender differences exist between males and females in terms of preparedness for the workforce in financial knowledge obtained from both family and educational sources (e.g., Danes & Haberman, 2007; Saari, Wood, & Wood, 2017), and the ways in which they negotiate (or fail to negotiate) for higher pay (e.g., Babcock, Gelfand, Small, & Stayn, 2006; Kugler et al., 2018). The current study extends this literature by investigating factors associated with Canadian late-adolescents’ preparedness for work by documenting work experiences (both casual and formal), remuneration experiences, and negotiation experiences as a function of gender. In total, 268 participants (137 females) aged 18-19 years (M = 18.44) completed a survey to assess gender differences in financial literacy, workforce readiness, and perceptions of and experiences with negotiating for higher pay. Key findings supported some patterns in gender disparities in financial knowledge, remuneration, and negotiation behaviours. Females reported learning significantly less financial knowledge in school compared to their male peers, and were also paid less for their casual jobs compared to males, suggesting that these gender differences may develop earlier in adolescence. While only a few of the late- adolescents in the present study reported having negotiation experience, success rate of a competitive negotiation was predicted by competence characteristics for male negotiators and by social characteristics for female negotiators, which indicates that existing gender norms affect the ways in which late-adolescents view negotiation as a function of gender (e.g., Kugler et al., 2018). Thus, the current study provides evidence of some gender differences in negotiation behaviour extant in adolescent populations, and supports the need for improvement in financial education and opportunities for practical applications in these domains.

Convocation Year


Convocation Season