Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MSc)


Kinesiology and Physical Education


Faculty of Science

First Advisor

Renee S. MacPhee, PhD

Advisor Role


Second Advisor

Dawn Guthrie, PhD

Advisor Role

Thesis Advisory Committee Member

Third Advisor

Peter Tiidus, PhD

Advisor Role

Thesis Advisory Committee Member


Introduction. Influenza vaccination rates have traditionally been very low among healthcare workers (HCWs) however; very few studies have examined vaccination rates andmotivators among paramedics.

Objectives. The Health Belief Model (HBM) (Rosenstock,1974) was used as a guideline in this study to better understand the motivators and barriers to flu vaccination among rural Ontario paramedics. This group represents a considerable proportion of the HCW community, yet it has been virtually omitted from previous research.

Methods. Through the use of self-report questionnaires, and using the HBM as a guideline, a graphical representation of the decision-making process regarding flu vaccination was generated. The sample included 99 independent responses received from 5 rural Ontario Emergency Medical Services (EMS): Bruce County EMS; County of Renfrew Paramedic Services; Haldimand County EMS; Haliburton County (Muskoka) EMS; and Perth County EMS. Univariate, Bivariate and Logistic Regression Analyses were conducted to evaluate data.

Results. Living arrangement (OR=4.80, 95%CI: 1.13-20.46) was found to directly affect vaccination rates within this group. Male gender (OR=2.50, 95%CI: 0.62-10.05), less than 5 years of service (OR=5.00, 95%CI: 0.54-46.72) and more than 20 years of service (OR=5.50, 95%CI: 0.59-51.19) trended toward higher rates of vaccination. There was no effect of age or level of education. Increased convenience has been previously cited as a way to improve vaccination rates, however; it appeared only to assist in improving rates for individuals already considering vaccination.

Conclusions. Increased Potential Benefits and Cues to Action are two dimensions of the HBM that could affect a change in vaccination status. This increased knowledge is useful in the development of targeted vaccine uptake initiatives that could lead to increased rates of vaccination among paramedics, HCWs and the community at large.

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