Salicylic acid (SA) is a central plant hormone mediating immunity, growth, and development. Recently, studies have highlighted the sensitivity of the SA pathway to changing climatic factors and the plant microbiome. Here we summarize organizing principles and themes in the regulation of SA biosynthesis, signaling, and metabolism by changing abiotic/biotic environments, focusing on molecular nodes governing SA pathway vulnerability or resilience. We especially highlight advances in the thermosensitive mechanisms underpinning SA-mediated immunity, including differential regulation of key transcription factors (e.g., CAMTAs, CBP60g, SARD1, bHLH059), selective protein–protein interactions of the SA receptor NPR1, and dynamic phase separation of the recently identified GBPL3 biomolecular condensates. Together, these nodes form a biochemical paradigm for how the external environment impinges on the SA pathway.
Rossi CAM, Marchetta EJR, Kim JH, Castroverde CDM (2023) Molecular regulation of the salicylic acid hormone pathway in plants under changing environmental conditions. Trends Biochem Sci. 48:697-710. doi: 10.1016/j.tibs.2023.05.004.
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