In plants, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed during normal conditions are essential in regulating several processes, like stomatal physiology, pathogen immunity and developmental signaling. However, biotic and abiotic stresses can cause ROS over-accumulation leading to oxidative stress. Therefore, a suitable equilibrium is vital for redox homeostasis in plants, and there have been major advances in this research arena. Salicylic acid (SA) is known as a chief regulator of ROS; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unexplored. SA plays an important role in establishing the hypersensitive response (HR) and systemic acquired resistance (SAR). This is underpinned by a robust and complex network of SA with Non-Expressor of Pathogenesis Related protein-1 (NPR1), ROS, calcium ions (Ca2+), nitric oxide (NO) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in the regulation of ROS and antioxidant defense system signalling by SA at the physiological and molecular levels. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of how SA controls redox homeostasis would provide a fundamental framework to develop approaches that will improve plant growth and fitness, in order to meet the increasing global demand for food and bioenergy.
Saleem M, Fariduddin Q, Castroverde CDM. (2021) Salicylic acid: A key regulator of redox signalling and plant immunity. Plant Physiol Biochem.168:381-397. doi: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2021.10.011.
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