This article reviews human rights violations in Zimbabwe from 2000 to 2009, under the rule of Robert Mugabe. It argues that these violations, including state-induced famine, illegal mass expulsions, and systemic rape, constituted crimes against humanity. This article considers what African regional organizations, including the African Union and the Southern African Development Community, and various organs of the international community did, and might have done, to restrain Mugabe and his inner circle from committing these violations. It concludes that the lack of forceful action by African and international organizations constituted a failure to protect the people of Zimbabwe.
Howard-Hassmann, Rhoda E., "Mugabe’s Zimbabwe, 2000–2009: Massive Human Rights Violations and the Failure to Protect" (2010). Political Science Faculty Publications. 26.