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Kinesiology and Physical Education


Many researchers in psychology and physical activity have discussed the overlap among control constructs in various theories. Skinner (1996) proposed an integrative control framework based on an agent-means-ends distinction that offered comparisons among and more explicit measurement of 3 control constructs—control, capacity, and strategy beliefs. No study in the exercise domain has yet empirically examined these advantages. This study evaluated Skinner’s framework relative to their contribution to predicting exercise attendance. A prospective design was used to consider the potential change in the nature of the relationships. High correlations (range r = .52-.88) at 2 time points in the exercise program suggested overlap among control constructs when using Skinner’s measurement procedures. Only capacity beliefs and behavioral intention were significantly related to exercise attendance (model R2adjusted = .11 and .16, p = .03 and .01, respectively, at onset and midprogram). The findings do not support Skinner’s contentions but are similar to previous findings in the exercise literature.


This article was originally published in Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 22(2): 131-144. (c) 2000 Human Kinetics Publishers Inc.