Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)


Geography & Environmental Studies


Faculty of Arts

First Advisor

Gunars Subins

Advisor Role

Thesis Supervisor


With the advent of increased volumes of liquid sewage sludge being produced in the world annually, means of disposal and recycling have become a serious issue. The disposal of sludge onto agricultural lands has raised concern regarding its environmental implications. The concern stems from the presence of toxic substances often found in sludge which can be harmful to the environment. The sludge utilization programme in the Regional Municipality of Waterloo has shortcomings in the areas of site evaluation and monitoring, and setting an application agenda tied in with a weather forecasting system. These shortcomings combined with the physical characteristics of the sludge sites may be considered as hindrances to the safe and proper application of sludge onto agricultural lands. Comparing the guidelines which govern sludge utilization on agricultural lands and how they are implemented with those of other countries, suggests that in the Region of Waterloo (Ontario Ministry of the Environment) the standards for sludge quality permitted on land are high, however, implementation of guidelines must be rendered a more strictly monitored operation.

Convocation Year


Convocation Season